Stocks

Is there anything more soothing than a deeply flavored chicken soup? 

Truffled Chicken Broth at Le Cinq in Paris

Well, it’s thanks to a rich, well-made stock that my chicken soup (and myriad other soups and sauces) taste so complex and utterly satisfying.

But before we delve into stock-making, it’s important to understand the differences between the following terms:

STOCK – Clear, thin (unthickened) liquid flavored by extractions from the bones of meat, poultry, fish and/or vegetables & seasoning

BROTH – Flavorful liquid obtained from the simmering of meats and/or vegetables & seasoning

GLAZE – Stock that is reduced until it coats the back of a spoon (a la nappe)

FOND LIE – Thickened stock consisting of brown stock and arrowroot (or cornstarch)

STOCK

There are several different types of stock and, as a result, different techniques to achieve the desired color and flavor. In the chart below, you will find the different processes detailed.

Before reviewing, please note the following information:

INGREDIENT PROPORTIONS USED FOR STOCKS:

  • 80% – Bones
  • 10% – Aromatic vegetables used for seasoning
  • 100% – Water

SEASONINGS USED IN STOCK-MAKING:

  • MIREPOIX – 50% onions, 25% carrots and 25% celery
  • OIGNON PIQUEE – Onion studded with bay leaf & clove
  • OIGNON BRULE – Onion burnt dark brown on the cut side
  • BOUQUET GARNI – Thyme, parsley stems, bay leaf, celery bundled and tied in leeks
  • SACHET – Herbs and spices tied in a cheesecloth bag

IMPORTANT TERMS RELATED TO STOCK:

GELATIN – Formed when connective tissues (collagen) break down; Gives body to a stock; Cartilage is the best source of gelatin in bones

BLANCHING – Avoiding cloudy stock by removing impurities that form when heated proteins coagulate:

  • Rinse bones in cold water
  • Place in stockpot with cold water
  • Bring to boil
  • Drain and rinse

SUER – Sweating vegetables to achieve translucence – no color

BTB – Means “bring to boil”. However, note that you don’t want to boil your stock because it creates clouding. Quickly, reduce to a simmer

RTS – Means “reduce to simmer”

DEPOUYER – The process of skimming the fats from the surface in order to ensure that your finished product isn’t greasy

PINCER LA TOMATE – Refers to the process of adding tomato paste and cooking it through

REMOUILLAGE – Stock made from bones that were already used once to make stock 

STOCK PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES:

  WHITE STOCK BROWN   STOCK VEGETABLE STOCK FISH   STOCK FISH   FUMET
PROCESS Rinse and/or blanch bones. Add cold water and bring to simmer. Depouyer. Add  mirepoix and herbs/spices. Simmer and strain Roast bones in oven until brown then add to stockpot with cold water. Reserve fat and deglaze pan with water to release fonds. Add to pot. Roast mirepoix  in reserved fat and pincer la tomate. Add to pot with sachet, simmer and depouyer. Strain. Suer   mirepoix, leeks, mushrooms, turnips, fennel and garlic. Add tomatoes, water and sachet. Simmer. Strain. Soak bones in ice water. Add to pot with cold water, mirepoix and sachet. Simmer and depouyer. Strain. Soak bones in ice water. Suer   mirepoix with bones until opaque. Add wine, simmer. Add sachet and cold water. Simmer and depouyer. Strain.
COOK   TIMES BEEF–8-10 hrs

VEAL– 6-8 hrs

CHICKEN – 3-4 hrs

FISH   – 30-45 min

BEEF – 8-10 hrs

VEAL – 6-8 hrs

45   min 45   min 30-45   min

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